Periodontal diseases can affect one or more of the periodontal tissues/structures (e.g. alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, cementum and gingiva). While there are many different periodontal diseases that can affect these tooth-supporting tissues/structures, by far the most common ones are plaque-induced inflammatory conditions, such as gingivitis and periodontitis. Often the term periodontal disease or gum disease is used as a synonym for periodontitis, specifically chronic periodontitis.
No bleeding or puffy gums, pocket all measure to a normal 3 mm or less
Bleeding gum when measured, puffy in appearance and pockets no greater than 3 mm.
Bleeding and puffy gums that measure slightly more than normal at up to 5 mm.
Bleeding and swollen gums with pockets that measure up to 6 mm and more. Recession beginning to appear.
When periodontitis progresses to the advanced stage, the gums severely recede.
There are a variety of treatments for gum disease depending on the stage of disease. Treatments range from nonsurgical therapies that control bacterial growth to surgery to restore supportive tissues.
Professional dental cleaning
Scaling and root planing
Flap surgery/Pocket reduction surgery
Soft tissue grafts
Guided tissue regeneration